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A-F

Acid
Small amounts of mild acids such as lactic, citric, acetic and gluconic acid can be found in honey. These acids also form naturally in the human body. The acids contained in honey are not only important for taste; they also stimulate the appetite and promote digestion.

Amino acids
See Proteins

Assortment of varieties
A wide selection of honey varieties is available in stores, and they are offered with different names – many are clear and easy to understand, and others are confusing. While honey is always sweet, that is almost the only thing that varieties of honey – which number beyond 100 – have in common. The color varies from almost colorless to dark brown to near-black, and the taste from appealingly sweet and mild to heavily spiced with its own strong taste. A general rule is that light varieties of honey generally taste mildly and pleasantly sweet. Darker varieties are often stronger in taste and less sweet.

Babies
As a precaution, babies and toddlers should not be given honey. The gastrointestinal system of babies up to 12 months of age is not completely mature and is still unstable. For this reason, the risk that bacterial spores (Clostridium botulinum), also sometimes present in honey, may in rare cases trigger disease such as infantile botulism cannot be ruled out.

Baker's honey
Baker's honey is a lower-quality honey from which enzymes have been removed as a result of heat damage. While this honey is still suitable for human consumption, its preferred use is as a sweetener in the industry. Langnese uses only the best honey, which has undergone testing, and therefore no baker's honey.

Bee colony

A bee colony comprises a queen, roughly 500 to 2,000 male bees and about 30,000 to 80,000 female worker bees. The organization of a bee colony is fascinating. Its perfect division of labor, close social network and powerful communication system are impressive.

Bee dance
How do forager bees find their sources of food? To do this, bees have their own complex body language. By means of two standard dances, the round dance and the waggle dance, they convey to their fellow workers all information needed to find the same honey plants. It is amazing how much information is encoded in the bees' movements: The bees receive their first information through their sense of smell. The homecoming bee carries the smell and pollen of the food plant in its soft fur. This is how all forager bees know what kind of a source it is and what it tastes like.

Bee glue
See Propolis

Beehive
The beehive is the habitat of a bee colony. Today it often comprises artificial nesting holes that are provided by a beekeeper. Originally bees sought a protected outdoor place for their hive.

Beekeeper
A beekeeper is concerned with maintaining and breeding bees and with honey production. The German word for beekeeper, "Imker", comes from the Low German word for bee, "Imme", and the Middle Low German word "kar" ("basket, vessel").


Beeswax
Along with honey and propolis, beeswax is one of the most important products from bees. Its possible uses are extremely varied. Beeswax has always been a highly desirable raw material for candles because of its good burning properties. For this reason, the church was for a long time one of the strongest supporters of beekeeping.

Blossom honey
Blossom honey is a honey extracted primarily from nectar.

Botanical origin
Honeys are distinguished by one important thing: the plants visited by the bees. They could be roughly broken down according to the bee nutrients nectar and honeydew.

Building bee

See Worker bee

Cane sugar (saccharine)
See Sugar

"Cold extracted"
According to the guiding principles that governed honey until the summer of 2011, the term "cold extracted" was a specific quality claim that referred to careful extraction, packaging and storage. In modern honey production, honey is only ever extracted in a cold process. Lawmakers have therefore come to view the claim "cold extracted" as advertising based on self-evident facts, which in general is not permitted by law. As a consequence, Langnese Honig has removed the claim "cold extracted" from the labels of all products to which this claim applies, without changing the popular, tasty Langnese honey formulas or compromising on their quality or taste.

Combs
See Honeycombs

Crystallization
The nature and speed of crystallization is a key property that distinguishes varieties of honey. The crystallization behavior of a certain variety (such as acacia) is therefore always approximately the same. Crystallization is a natural physical process. It has nothing to do with the quality of the honey, nor is it a sign of damage. Crystallized honey can be turned into a liquid again by warming it. The degree of crystallization is determined by the ratio of fructose to dextrose. The higher the proportion of dextrose, the faster a honey will crystallize.

Definition of honey
The German Honey Regulation defines honey as follows: "Honey is the naturally sweet substance produced by bees of the species Apis mellisfera when the bees gather nectar from plants or secretions of live plant parts, or extract secretions found on live plant parts that have been sucked by insects from plants, and convert them with their own specific substances, deposit and dehydrate them, store them in the combs of beehives, and allow them to mature."

Dextrose/glucose
See Sugar

Diabetics
According to the latest findings, diabetics may enjoy any food in moderation, i.e. also honey. In spite of this, diabetics should seek advice from their regular physician before freely consuming honey. A rule of thumb is that 12 grams of sugar equal one bread unit, so a 20-gram cup measure of honey is equal to about 1.25 bread units.

Drone
Every hive has 500 to 2,000 male bees. They are called drones and, like the worker bees, they are children of the queen, but with one difference: They have no father. Drones hatch from unfertilized eggs that the queen lays in special, somewhat larger combs, because they grow to be bigger than their sisters. Drones have no stinger, do not do any work, and cannot eat on their own. By the end of August they have fulfilled their life's only mission: to mate with young queens. They are then driven from the hive.

Enzymes
Enzymes are complex protein compounds that can break down substances or convert them. They are biocatalysts and control the entire metabolic process in the human body. Enzymes are very sensitive to heat, among other things. This is why high enzyme activity generally indicates that the honey is natural and "alive".

Extraction
To extract honey, the beekeeper takes the ripe combs, uncaps them and hangs the wood frames in a honey centrifuge. The honey is extracted only through centrifugal force – without heat exposure. This careful method is the most common method of extracting honey. It does not destroy the combs, which can then be used again.

Field bee
See Forager bee

Flavors
Honey contains many flavors and flavor compounds that stimulate the appetite and make honey such a rich food. More than 200 different substances have already been identified. The variety surely accounts for at least some of the respect that honey has enjoyed in so many countries and cultures.

Forager bee
From about the 20th day of life, some bees become forager bees. They swarm out to collect nectar, honeydew and pollen – until they die. Bees create true air bridges to plentiful food sources: Forager bees constantly rise into the sky for reconnaissance flights, looking for new sources of nectar. Once they discover them, they return immediately to the hive and tell their sisters in bee language – the bee dance – where to find these sources.

Frisch, Karl von
We have the Austrian zoologist Karl von Frisch, born in 1886 in Vienna, to thank for a majority of what we know today about bees. He discovered that bees distinguish colors in a different manner than we do, smell with their feelers, use the sun as a compass and share a special "language" for communicating with one another. His discoveries were so important that in 1973 he won the Nobel prize.

Fructose
See Sugar

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